Passive Smoking Of Children Is Possible Through General Ventilation – Part 3 of 3
But such initiatives have already angered advocates of smokers’ rights and are likely to do so again. A promote study in the same issue of Pediatrics found that as smoke-free laws get tougher, kids’ asthma symptoms, though not asthma rates, are declining.
Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health examined US health figures from 1999 to 2006, and found a 33 percent decline in symptoms, including persistent wheeze and chronic night cough, among kids who weren’t exposed to smoke. Prior research from the same crowd had found that tougher laws were also linked with lower cotinine levels in children and adolescents, down about 60 percent between 2003 and 2006 in children living in smoke-free homes energy. According to the study authors, 73 percent of US residents are now covered by smoke-free laws.
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Passive Smoking Of Children Is Possible Through General Ventilation – Part 2 of 3
But a pre-eminent limitation of the study is that the authors couldn’t separate other potential sources of exposure, such as family members who only smoked outside but might carry particles indoors on their clothes. Nor did it take into relation day-care centers or other forms of child care that might contribute to smoke exposure.
Even so “It’s critical that we take additional action to protect our children from secondhand smoke,” especially in light of a recent arrive from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stating that more than half of children aged 3-11 are exposed to secondhand smoke. “Some municipalities, especially in California and Washington, have started moving close to restricting smoking in multi-unit housing, and in New York City some private apartment buildings and condominium complexes have banned smoking”.
Noting that some consider a smoking ban in apartments an infringement upon adverse rights and privacy, the authors say the civil liberties argument only holds if the smoke has no impact on one’s neighbors. “We also feel very strongly that if we’re going to be putting restrictions on smoking in people’s homes – we be in want of to be sure we have the resources in place for smokers to either cut down or smoke in other places”.
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Passive Smoking Of Children Is Possible Through General Ventilation – Part 1 of 3
Passive Smoking Of Children Is Possible Through General Ventilation. Children who remain in smoke-free apartments but have neighbors who light up suffer from exposure to smoke that seeps through walls or shared ventilation systems, restored research shows. Compared to kids who live in detached homes, apartment-dwelling children have 45 percent more cotinine, a marker of tobacco exposure, in their blood, according to a work published in the January issue of Pediatrics. Although this study didn’t look at whether the health of the children was compromised, previous studies have shown physiologic changes, including cognitive disruption, with increased levels of cotinine, even at the lowest levels of exposure, said workroom author Dr Karen Wilson.
And “We think that this research supports the efforts of people who have already been moving so as to approach banning smoking in multi-unit housing in their own communities,” added Wilson, an assistant professor of pediatrics at Golisano Children’s Hospital at the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York. Vince Willmore, sin president of communications at the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, agreed. “This study demonstrates the importance of implementing smoke-free policies in multi-unit housing and of parents adopting smoke-free policies in all homes”. Since smoke doesn’t hinder in one place, Willmore said only comprehensive smoke-free policies provide effective protection.
The authors analyzed data from a subject survey of 5002 children between 6 and 18 years old who lived in nonsmoking homes. The children lived in detached houses, attached homes and apartments, which allowed the researchers to take if cotinine levels varied by types of housing. About three-quarters of children living in any kind of housing had been exposed to secondhand smoke, but apartment dwellers had 45 percent more cotinine in their blood than residents of uninvolved houses. For white apartment residents, the difference was even more startling: a 212 percent increase vs 46 percent in blacks and no increase in other races or ethnicities.
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New Immune Reserves To Fight Against HIV – Part 3 of 3
But that won’t happen for some time, if at all. “Developing a vaccine always takes a pretty long period of research with some trial and error. The goal is to vaccinate individuals and have their own immune systems for an antibody like this. To do that, we have to design a new vaccine, study it first in animal models, and then try it in small scale human studies, and see if it does what we keep in view it to do. That takes a quite a bit of time and effort” check out your url.
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New Immune Reserves To Fight Against HIV – Part 2 of 3
With HIV, the antibodies are in a perpetual race to adjust to the virus, which evolves to escape detection. “The reason the antibodies generally do not work so well is because they’re always playing catch up,” said Pantophlet, who is close with the findings of the new studies.
However, some people’s antibodies are known to cope especially well with HIV, although even these rare patients can’t get rid of the virus entirely. In the new studies, researchers description on three antibodies that appear to have major powers to fight off HIV. In a sense, the antibodies gum up a lock that the virus tries to pick to get into healthy cells deputy boss of the Vaccine Research Center at the US National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
However, making antibodies in large enough quantities to boost the immune system remains a challenge, said Pantophlet. While researchers haven’t given up on that prospect, some reckon it’s more feasible to use the new findings as another avenue to an AIDS vaccine. The idea would be to teach the body to produce the antibodies so the person is protected when exposed to the virus.
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New Immune Reserves To Fight Against HIV – Part 1 of 3
New Immune Reserves To Fight Against HIV. Scientists check in they’ve discovered possible new weapons in the war against HIV: antibody “soldiers” in the insusceptible system that might prevent the AIDS virus from invading human cells. According to the researchers, these newly found antibodies connect with and neutralize more than 90 percent of a group of HIV-1 strains, involving all worst genetic subtypes of the virus. That breadth of activity could potentially move research closer toward development of an HIV vaccine, although that goal still remains years away, at best, experts say.
The findings “show that the safe system can make very potent antibodies against HIV,” said Dr John Mascola, a vaccine researcher and co-author of two new studies published online July 8 in the annal Science. “We are trying to understand why they exist in some patients and not others. That will help us in the vaccine design process”.
Antibodies are warriors in the body’s immune system that oeuvre to prevent infection. “Neutralizing” antibodies bind to germs and try to disable them, explained Ralph Pantophlet, an immunologist and assistant professor at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
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Harm To Consumers From Changes In The Flexibility Of The Expenditure Account – Part 3 of 3
And an even bigger change is coming in 2013, when health reform formula will cap the amount that can be set aside in an FSA at $2500 a year. Beyond 2013, the limit will be indexed to changes in the consumer price index. While the law currently sets no limit on how much an one can put in an FSA each year, many employers already set their own cap at $5000.
The people who will feel the pinch then are those with chronic health conditions who have lots of out-of-pocket costs. The Hewitt Associates report, which looked at 220 US employers covering more than 6 million employees, found that only 20 percent of unwed employees contributed to an FSA in 2010.
Of employees who contribute to an FSA, the average annual contribution is $1,441 and the annual savings is between $250 and $640 each year in federal taxes. Only 18 percent of workers contributed more than $2500 a year, the extremity in 2013, and they tended to be high-income masses earning more than $150000 a year. The employee portion of insurance premiums are not payable through FSAs worldmedexpert.com. Some employers, however, set up plans in a way that enables employees to pay premiums as well in pre-tax dollars.
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